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Mains Halogen Lamps

Mains Halogen Lamps

Halogen Light Bulbs where first invented by GE Lighting in 1958. A halogen light bulb simply uses halogen gas to allow the halogen light bulbs to burn more brightly and also ensure that the life cycle of the lamp is not shortened. Halogen Light Bulbs produce a very clear and crisp light out put, unlike the incandescent light bulbs they replace that can give out a yellowish glow.

Most commonly known for the GU10 Halogen Light Bulbs and the MR16 Halogen Light Bulbs are also available in many different shapes and wattages. A complete a full range of spot light bulbs are available as well as larges GU10 Light Bulbs known as the AR111 Halogen Lamps. The traditional MR16 Light Bulbs that are 50mm in Diameter are now available in 35mm Diameter known as an MR11 and also 25mm Diameter known as an MR8. These lamps can sometimes also be called GU4 Light Bulbs.

A full range of coloured GU10 Halogen Light Bulbs are available as well as a complete range of MR16 Halogen Light Bulbs, such as Amber, Blue, Green, Lilac, Magenta, Purple, Pink, Red and Yellow. The most recent change to halogen light bulbs is the introduction of the Energy Saving Xenon Halogen Light Bulb range. These ranges of light bulbs are direct replacements for standard shaped light bulbs as well as spot lamps and Candle Light Bulbs.

Main Voltage Halogen Light Bulbs: Technology, Applications, and Environmental Impact

1. Introduction to Main Voltage Halogen Light Bulbs

Finally, it should be indicated that halogen lamps are used, with the aid of parabolic reflectors, for the purposes of lighting and for decoration at both indoor and outdoor areas like buildings, gardens, squares, and so on. These aspects are also briefly discussed towards the end of this chapter together with the issue of waste electrical and electronic equipment.

In general, halogen light bulbs may be classified into main voltage and low voltage bulbs. This chapter is dedicated to main voltage, while the Philips Emphasis booklet included in the background material for this topic describes in some detail both types. As such, low voltage bulbs, which are used in electronic systems and are included partly for comparison reasons and partly in a perspective role, will be described only briefly in what follows.

The objective of this chapter is to describe the technology of main voltage halogen light bulbs, their environmental impact, and their applications. In what follows, main voltage halogen light bulbs are introduced, including their types, construction, characteristics of operation, and historical background.

2. Technology and Components of Main Voltage Halogen Light Bulbs

Not many halide molecules are typically available for lamp maintenance due to their reduced filling pressure, partial dissociation and losses by surface volatilization and diffusion outside the hot part of the lamp. The halide fluxes to be obtained during the life of the lamps depend largely upon the heat of the wall of the lamps and on the distance from the filaments as some molecules break and recombine at the temperature. A limitation can be considered in practice due to the rather high temperature of the quartz envelope with respect to the temperature of the halide package. An upgrade on the halogen-based light source can be represented by a joined use of halide and xenon molecules. Halide systems lifetime performances may be improved, as the lamps will be filled with a well-balanced halide+inert gas filling. Due to the reduced heat of this mixture, the discharge envelope temperature could be lower, allowing a better recharge of the tungsten filament.

This bulb is made of pure quartz and contains halide additives. The substance fills much less of the space, as it does not need a long discharge space. Halogen bulbs are filled with a highly reactive halogen gas and have a much longer life than incandescent bulbs. The halogen participates in a complex cycle of crystal formation and resorption, driven by lamp thermal conditions. Small or unnoticeable imperfections in the lamps' quartz envelope are the source of short circuit between the tungsten and the surrounding quartz. If both the halogen cycle and the maximum temperature of the filament are well balanced, the glow of halogen bulbs is particularly bright and efficient, but lamp reliability is again reduced. Pure halogen systems without lamp enhancements could suffer from limited lamp life, and special lamp designs that take up the challenge of driving halogen bulbs to their limits should be built.

3. Applications and Benefits of Main Voltage Halogen Light Bulbs

The higher temperature and pressure inside the bulb determine: a very fast filament depreciation; an unequal deposition of halogen atoms on the tungsten filament and injection into the flask wall (the narrowing of the transparent emission window neighboring the filament decreases). If the temperature and the pressure internally the Halogen lamp could be measured, the performances of the Halogen lamp could be predicted quite easily. More to the point, the service life of the Halogen lamps could be doubled. When the lamp operated the halogen cycle replaced, operating conditions in the boundary field are kept. Contrarily to the previously shown geometry, the inclusion on the middle part, the "neck" of some fine grooves almost doubles the light output at the expense of some increase on it. Due to the production on high pressures, the hot Sodium steam will maintain this movement, the optical pumping is very efficient. Furthermore, the grooves act as mirrors that retro-reflect off of back most of the emitted light, substantially improving the efficiency.

The general name "Main Voltage Halogen" includes both Halogen Classic and the Aluminum Halogen lamps. Both types also have lamps of the same voltage and diameter but differ from each other through: length and luminous power, which are based on the electric power used. Physical and photometric characteristics of the lamp. As long as these are crafted (in the first view for the looks), we use small diameter gas-filled quartz tubes, where the gases and the halogen operate under very high pressure and high temperature. In time, the lamps do weaken and such, the tubes darken through. The most frequent causes of lamp weakening are: poor quality of individual precious metals (tungsten filament, molybdenum supports) and poor insertions in the socket due to piercing and perforation by the bulb or base components.

4. Environmental Impact and Sustainability Considerations

Growing energy consumption - 3.2 kTonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe) global production in 2012 of instantaneous halogen lamps - uncontrolled generation of waste - current low energy efficiency in comparison with competitors - specific high total costs not representative of the long-term solutions. The classical philosophical dilemma of product cost at the moment of coming from the life vs. qualitative and quantitative consequences at the end of operation includes all product types, but is strongly significant for long-life product components. Main voltage halogen light bulbs, in our case, although providing an excellent quality light output for occupied area illumination, could now be considered as a 'problematic component' in areas such as manufacturing. Improved materials and energy efficiency, on the basis of European Union (EU) policies, together with smart local production and retailing strategies could also be important customer stimuli.

Unrestrained waste production is a key global challenge. All global and nations' economies should necessarily move to sustainable technologies and systems - especially in the high-impact consumption sectors. Main voltage halogens present some major waste and energy issues. Development of current, low-energy LED technology is representative of a new trend to attenuate those environmental impacts applying energy efficiency and longer life design. However, special attention to the replacement and recycling of those dangerous rare earth elements used in LED lamps should be paid, besides the production impacts. Consumer uptake could be encouraged through consumer education, revised product labeling, and financial incentives.